As we saw in Chapter 1, in Python, as in any object-oriented programming language, the implementation of abstract data types (such as stacks) is to create new classes. The stack operation is implemented as a method.
Machine learning is an application of artificial intelligence (AI) that enables the system to automatically learn and improve experience without explicit programming. Machine learning focuses on developing computer programs that can access data and use it to learn by itself.
Data science is an interdisciplinary field that uses scientific methods, processes, algorithms, and systems to extract knowledge and insights from structured and unstructured forms of data, similar to data mining.
MATLAB is the fourth generation of programming language and numerical analysis environment. The uses of MATLAB include matrix computing, developing and running algorithms, creating user interfaces (UIs) and data visualization.